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Int J Aging. 2023;1: e7.
doi: 10.34172/ija.2023.e7
  Abstract View: 544
  PDF Download: 309

Original Article

Loneliness as a Predictor of Hypertension in Older Adults: The TOPS Study

Zahra Yousefi 1,2 ORCID logo, Sirous Sameie-Sis 2, Somaiyeh Taheri-Targhi 3, Mostafa Araj-khodaei 3 ORCID logo, Sarvin Sanaie 4* ORCID logo, Cobi Adams 5,6 ORCID logo, Akbar Azizi-Zeinalhajlou 3* ORCID logo

1 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
2 Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Aging Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
3 Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Research Center, Aging Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
4 Neurosciences Research Center, Aging Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
5 Department of Medicine, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
6 Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
*Corresponding Authors: Sarvin Sanaie,, Email: sarvin_so2000@yahoo.com; Akbar Azizi-Zeinalhajlou,, Email: akbarazizi55@gmail.com

Abstract

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between loneliness and hypertension in older people.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting(s): Tabriz, the capital city of the East Azerbaijan province in northwestern Iran.

Participants: A representative sample of≥60-year-old community dwellers. A total of 1362 participants (768 females and 594 males) were selected using the probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling method.

Outcome measures: Blood pressure, loneliness, and social support were assessed using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer, the 6-item De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale, and the Duke Social Support Index (DSSI), respectively.

Results: The prevalence of hypertension was 81.0% among older adults (86.8% in women vs. 73.4% in men, P<0.001). In addition, 54% of respondents felt lonely. Loneliness was more prevalent in females than in males (58.7% vs. 47.9%, P<0.001). Hypertension was found to be associated with social loneliness score (OR=1.16, 95% CI=1.02 to 1.32), marital status (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.31 to 0.78), body mass index (OR=1.11, 95% CI=1.07 to 1.15), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.56, 95% CI=1.03 to 2.31), and sleep quality score (OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.06 to 1.19).

Conclusions: Social loneliness is associated with an increased risk of hypertension in older people. This highlights the importance of addressing psychosocial factors, especially social loneliness, when managing hypertension in older adults.


Please cite this article as follows: Yousefi Z, Sameie-Sis S, Taheri-Targhi S, Araj-khodaei M, Sanaie S, Adams C, et al. Loneliness as a predictor of hypertension in older adults: the TOPS study. Int J Aging. 2023;1: e7. doi: 10.34172/ija.2023.e7
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Submitted: 24 Feb 2023
Revision: 11 Mar 2023
Accepted: 11 Mar 2023
ePublished: 10 May 2023
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